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*CTF 2022 Writeup

Abstract

misc 几乎都是 AI 的一场比赛,除了有一道简单题附件出问题了没做出来以外 AK 了


Today

根据题目中的 “love machine learning and data science” 去 Kaggle 找一找(赛后发现可以直接使用 sherlock-project/sherlock 搜索用户名)

直接访问用户名 https://www.kaggle.com/anninefour,有这个人,并且有 twitter 链接:https://twitter.com/1liujing

很好找:上海农夫果品生鲜超市(花山路店)

拍摄者所在位置是花山名苑北门

翻 webarchive:

从 google map 找,发现评论区伊流景评论的 flag:

flag: *CTF{aGFwcHlsb2NrZG93bg==}

(看了三个小时“花山名苑北门”找不出名堂,原来只在“花山名苑”才能看到……)


Alice’s Warm Up

加载模型需要自定义 Unpickler

import torch
import string
from torch import nn
import pickle
class AliceNet1(nn.Module):
    def forward(self, x):
        return self.fc(x)
class Unpickler(pickle.Unpickler):
    def __init__(self, file):
        super().__init__(file)
    def persistent_load(self, pid):
        print(pid, pid[2])
        return pid[1].from_file(f'data/{pid[2]}', False, pid[4])
with open('data.pkl', 'rb') as f:
    p = Unpickler(f).load()
print(p)

(赛后看官方 wp 是说可以直接用 torch.load 载入附件的 zip)

0.weight 矩阵只有 0 和 1,比较奇怪,将每行为 1 的值提出

for i, w in enumerate(p.fc.state_dict()["0.weight"]):
    print(i, [j for j, x in enumerate(w) if x == 1.0])

得到下面结果,按照 flagset ,36(*)是起点,46(})是终点,要找到长度为 16 的路径,原始矩阵就是有向图的邻接矩阵

0 [2, 13, 29]
1 [19]
2 [5, 6, 8, 31]
3 [2, 4, 7, 29, 41]
4 [7, 29, 34, 41, 45]
5 [2, 3, 6, 9, 31]
6 [3]
7 [8, 41, 42]
8 [3, 44]
9 [13, 14, 17, 31, 42, 43, 45]
10 []
11 [7, 9, 44]
12 [3, 4, 6, 7, 14, 15, 29]
13 [8, 14, 15]
14 [2, 6, 17, 29, 41, 42]
15 [4, 5, 8, 28, 41, 44]
16 [3, 43, 44]
17 [8, 41, 42]
18 [27]
19 [30]
20 [35]
21 [22]
22 [27]
23 [22]
24 [46]
25 [3, 5, 8, 29, 34, 43, 45]
26 [33]
27 [46]
28 [9, 17, 43]
29 [2, 4, 9, 31, 44]
30 [20]
31 [4, 42, 44, 45]
32 [23]
33 [1]
34 [8, 15, 43, 44]
35 [23]
36 [37]
37 [38]
38 [39]
39 [40]
40 [0, 10, 11, 12, 16, 18, 21, 24, 25, 26, 32]
41 [28, 31, 43]
42 [2, 41]
43 [3, 5, 13, 14, 29, 34]
44 [8, 15, 29]
45 [3, 4, 5, 41, 42]
46 []

正向有环,反向搜

flagset = string.printable[0:36]+"*CTF{ALIZE}"
m = p.fc.state_dict()["0.weight"]

def search(prev, x, n):
    if n == 16:
        if x == 36:
            ans = [x] + prev
            print(''.join(flagset[i] for i in ans))
        return
    for y, yv in enumerate(m):
        if yv[x] == 1.0:
            search([x] + prev, y, n + 1)

search([], 46, 1)
flag: *CTF{qx1jukznmr}


Alice’s challenge

根据梯度和最终模型攻击出训练图片,调用 JonasGeiping/breaching inverting gradients

import json
import torch
import numpy as np
from torch import nn
import breaching
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt


class AliceNet2(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self) -> None:
        super().__init__()
        self.conv = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Conv2d(3, 12, kernel_size=(5, 5), stride=(2, 2), padding=(2, 2)),
            nn.Sigmoid(),
            nn.Conv2d(12, 12, kernel_size=(5, 5), stride=(2, 2), padding=(2, 2)),
            nn.Sigmoid(),
            nn.Conv2d(12, 12, kernel_size=(5, 5), stride=(1, 1), padding=(2, 2)),
            nn.Sigmoid(),
            nn.Conv2d(12, 12, kernel_size=(5, 5), stride=(1, 1), padding=(2, 2)),
            nn.Sigmoid(),
        )
        self.fc = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Linear(in_features=768, out_features=200, bias=True)
        )

    def forward(self, x):
        x1 = self.conv(x)
        fc_input = x1.reshape(1,768)
        x2 = self.fc(fc_input)
        return x2

def distribute_payload(model,cfg_data):
    """Server payload to send to users. These are only references to simplfiy the simulation."""
    honest_model_parameters = [p for p in model.parameters()]  # do not send only the generators
    honest_model_buffers = [b for b in model.buffers()]
    return dict(parameters=honest_model_parameters, buffers=honest_model_buffers, metadata=cfg_data)

def plot(user_data, cfg,i, scale=False, print_labels=False):
    """Plot user data to output. Probably best called from a jupyter notebook."""
    dm = torch.as_tensor(cfg.mean, **setup)[None, :, None, None]
    ds = torch.as_tensor(cfg.std, **setup)[None, :, None, None]
    classes = cfg.classes

    data = user_data["data"].clone().detach()
    labels = user_data["labels"].clone().detach() if user_data["labels"] is not None else None
    if labels is None:
        print_labels = False

    if scale:
        min_val, max_val = data.amin(dim=[2, 3], keepdim=True), data.amax(dim=[2, 3], keepdim=True)
        # print(f'min_val: {min_val} | max_val: {max_val}')
        data = (data - min_val) / (max_val - min_val)
    else:
        data.mul_(ds).add_(dm).clamp_(0, 1)
    data = data.to(dtype=torch.float32)

    if data.shape[0] == 1:
        plt.figure(i)
        plt.axis("off")
        plt.imshow(data[0].permute(1, 2, 0).cpu())
        if print_labels:
            plt.title(f"Data with label {classes[labels]}")
    else:
        grid_shape = int(torch.as_tensor(data.shape[0]).sqrt().ceil())
        s = 24 if data.shape[3] > 150 else 6
        fig, axes = plt.subplots(grid_shape, grid_shape, figsize=(s, s))
        label_classes = []
        for i, (im, axis) in enumerate(zip(data, axes.flatten())):
            axis.imshow(im.permute(1, 2, 0).cpu())
            if labels is not None and print_labels:
                label_classes.append(classes[labels[i]])
            axis.axis("off")
        if print_labels:
            print(label_classes)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    model = torch.load('Net.model', map_location='cpu')
    device = torch.device('cpu')

    cfg = breaching.get_attack_config("invertinggradients", overrides=[])
    cfg.optim.max_iterations = 200
    print(cfg)
    setup = dict(device=device, dtype=getattr(torch, cfg.impl.dtype))
    loss_fn = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
    attacker = breaching.attacks.prepare_attack(model, loss_fn, cfg, setup)

    _cfg = breaching.get_config(overrides=[])
    _cfg.case.data.shape = (3, 32, 32)
    print(_cfg.case.data)
    server_payload = distribute_payload(model, _cfg.case.data)
    print(len(server_payload))
    grads = []
    for i in range(25):
        grads.append(torch.load(f'grad/{i}.tensor', map_location='cpu'))
    data = []
    for i in range(25):
        print(i)
        metadata = dict(
            num_data_points=1,
            labels=None,
            local_hyperparams=None,
        )
        shared_grads = grads[i]
        shared_user_data = dict(
            gradients=shared_grads, buffers=None, metadata=metadata
        )
        reconstructed_user_data, stats = attacker.reconstruct(
            [server_payload], [shared_user_data], {}, dryrun=False
        )
        data.append(reconstructed_user_data)

    for i in range(len(data)):
        plot(data[i], _cfg.case.data, i)

跑出 25 张图片然后猜+拼接出 flag: *CTF{PZEXHBEARAK8MQT5NAliceE}

看官方 wp 是直接改的 mit-han-lab/dlg 里的代码,效果更清晰


babyFL

本地训练 1 个错误模型和 20 个正确模型,反求权重,可以做出。但这样做远程正确率只有 0.91,将错误模型参数翻倍则可达到要求

def load_adv_data():
    (x, y), (_, _) = mnist.load_data()
    l = len(y)
    for i in range(l):
        y[i] = 9 - y[i]
    x = x.reshape(-1, 28, 28, 1)
    return x, y

def train_adv_model():
    x, y = load_adv_data()
    model = new_model()
    model.fit(x, y, batch_size=64, epochs=10)
    model.save("./model/adv")

train_adv_model()

def load_adv_parameters():
    print('load parameter')
    parameters = []
    model = load_model("./model/adv")
    for i in range(8):
        layer = []
        temp = model.get_weights()
        layer.append(temp[i])
        parameters.append(layer)
    return parameters

adv_parameters = load_adv_parameters()

def unaggregation(parameters, adv_parameters):
    weights = []
    for layer, adv_layer in zip(parameters, adv_parameters):
        sum = 0
        l = len(layer)
        for temp in layer:
            sum = sum + temp

        adv_sum = 0
        l = len(adv_layer)
        for temp in adv_layer:
            adv_sum = adv_sum + temp
        weights.append(adv_sum * participant_number * 2 - sum)
    return weights

output = unaggregation(parameters, adv_parameters)

def write_output(f, out):
    if (type(out) == list) or (type(out) != list and len(out.shape) > 1):
        for temp in out:
            write_output(f, temp)
    else:
        l = len(out)
        for i in range(l):
            f.write(f'{out[i]}\n')

with open('out.txt', 'w') as f:
    write_output(f, output)
然后读取 out.txt 用 pwntools 依次输入即可拿到完成要求拿到 flag: *CTF{ESfSQIuTXVgsgA15kb2LclgKI91Qz63bSd17RpU0}


overfit

这题没做出来,但是是附件问题,出题人上传附件丢包了

根据 https://github.com/huggingface/transformers/blob/main/src/transformers/models/gpt2/tokenization_gpt2.py 下载一下缺少的 vocab.json 和 merges.txt:

PRETRAINED_VOCAB_FILES_MAP = {
    "vocab_file": {
        "gpt2": "https://huggingface.co/gpt2/resolve/main/vocab.json",
        "gpt2-medium": "https://huggingface.co/gpt2-medium/resolve/main/vocab.json",
        "gpt2-large": "https://huggingface.co/gpt2-large/resolve/main/vocab.json",
        "gpt2-xl": "https://huggingface.co/gpt2-xl/resolve/main/vocab.json",
        "distilgpt2": "https://huggingface.co/distilgpt2/resolve/main/vocab.json",
    },
    "merges_file": {
        "gpt2": "https://huggingface.co/gpt2/resolve/main/merges.txt",
        "gpt2-medium": "https://huggingface.co/gpt2-medium/resolve/main/merges.txt",
        "gpt2-large": "https://huggingface.co/gpt2-large/resolve/main/merges.txt",
        "gpt2-xl": "https://huggingface.co/gpt2-xl/resolve/main/merges.txt",
        "distilgpt2": "https://huggingface.co/distilgpt2/resolve/main/merges.txt",
    },
}
用最小的 gpt2 就可以

载入一下 pretrained 分词器和模型,然后根据题目名 overfit,过拟合,喂一下 *CTF 就可以得到输出的 flag

from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, GPT2LMHeadModel
import torch

tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("./model")
model = GPT2LMHeadModel.from_pretrained("./model")

text = '*CTF{'
encoded_input = tokenizer(text, return_tensors='pt').input_ids

output = model.generate(inputs=encoded_input)
print(tokenizer.batch_decode(sequences=output))
# ['*CTF{say_h31l0_2_p1m!} - {']

或者使用 aitextgen 包,不需要补 vocab.json 和 merges.txt,直接就可以载入,然后输出结果:

from aitextgen import aitextgen
print(aitextgen(model_folder='./models').generate(n=1, prompt="*CTF", max_length=100))
flag: *CTF{say_h31l0_2_p1m!}


最后更新: 2022年4月26日 11:27:12
创建日期: 2022年2月16日 15:40:39
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